We Buddhists have an advantage over those like the Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist David J. Chalmers who acknowledges a problem with the dualism of matter and consciousness both of which are taken to be primary.
For Buddhism, vijñāna, translated by the English word, 'consciousness,' is already dualistic which includes mental activity and the external world. We can imagine it as a kind of natural dualizing apparatus which is a major part of our temporal life.
More precisely, vijñāna/consciousness is knowing (jñāna) constituted of an onlooker and the observed thing (internal and external) such that our knowing is always double (vi). This kind of knowing arises from the original One (eka) which we have not yet intuited. Because we have not yet intuited it, the One is bound down to the dualism of vijñāna/consciousness from which it cannot escape except to intuit the One. After this intuition, it is easy then to see that the onlooker and the observed object are an illusion that arises only when the One, ignorant of itself, splits itself into two parts (vi), this being the onlooker and the looked at thing. According to the Buddha in the Lankavatara Sutra:
"My teaching is not divided, it remains always one and the same, but because of the desires and faculties of beings that are infinitely varied, it is capable also of infinite variation."
This is about the One vehicle (eka-yāna) vs the Dual vehicle (vi/dvi-yāna) which strikes me as the vijñāna vehicle. Incidentally, some scholars believe that “yāna” was originally the Prakrit term “jāna” which stood for the Sanskrit term jñāna, i.e., knowing—not vehicle or yāna.
The goal of Buddhism’s meditation is about overcoming consciousness which would be a return to the One. This is a new position in which the One now knows itself (it is no longer in ignorance). In this new position, consciousness is being continually superseded by the One. As a result, the world of consciousness becomes, more and more illusory. Now, if you rewind this consciousness it becomes more dense and powerful while the One almost disappears into the background which is the situation we are in today. Let me finish this up with a word of caution. Even though this can be intellectually understood, it has to be actually realized which is an extraordinary experience like no other.